It is the way of communication between User and Computer. It is used to write computer programs. Just as human speak a variety of styles, a programmer use a variety of languages and tools to create programs. Several programming languages exist today. Each word has its own rules for writing the instructions. A word provides the rules to write an education is called its syntax. The style is designed for specific purposes, e.g. scientific applications, business solutions or web Page Development.
Types of Programming Languages
There are two types of computer languages.
- Low-Level Language
- High-Level Language
The language, which is closed to the machine, is called low-level language. A low-level programming language is device dependent. A machine-dependent expression runs on only one type of computer. These programs are not portable to other types of equipment. A Computer can easily understand the low-level language. The low-level of language requires a deep understanding of machine architecture.
There are two types of low-level language.
- Machine language
- Assembly language
Machine language: It is the native language of the computer. It is known as the first generation programming language. Every machine language instruction consists of 0’s and l’s. It is difficult for human beings to understand and learn it. It is difficult to locate and remove errors in the program. The computer directly executes it. Machine language programs are machine dependent.
Assembly language: Machine language instructions (0’s and l’s) are replaced with English like words known as mnemonics ( Ne-
It is closed to human language. It is a user-friendly language. A user can; learn and.understand high-level language easily. The instructions of HLL are written in English statements. The programs of HLL are not directly executed on the computer. The programs written in HLL are machine independent. A language translator is required to translate the HLL into the low-level language. Each language has a translator. These translators are compilers and interpreters HLL programs are easy to modify, debug and more reliable. The HLL does not require a deep understanding of machine architecture. HLL describes a well-defined way of writing programs. These languages are mostly used for writing application programs. Every high-level language provides a large number of built-in functions. The programs in the high-level language are shorter than the programs in low-level language.
- C and C++ (used for writing System Software)
- Java (Java is equipped with robust Network features)
- COBOL (ordinary business-oriented language and used for business applications)
- FORTRAN (Formula Translation and used for mathematical problems)
- BASIC (Beginners all purposes symbolic instruction code)
Structured Programming Language:
- A programming language in which the logic of the program is divided into some smaller sections or modules.
- Each section of the program performs a specific function.
- These programs are easy to write, debug and modify.
Un-Structured Programming Language:
- A programming language in which the logic of the program is Written in a single module.
- Detecting an error in the program is complicated.
- Its readability is difficult.